Since WordPress 2.8, we can target specific types of page views with CSS using the new
body_class() tag. Designed for use within the
body_class() outputs various class attributes according to the current type of page view. This makes it easy to apply page-specific styling such as current-page navigation highlighting and other nifty CSS tricks.
The whole notion of plugins is that they provide special niche functionality that not every site would need. But that is just theoretical, as most new features that have ever been added to the WordPress core began life as a plugin. If the plugin was useful to enough people, it was built in.
Breadcrumbs are such a standard design pattern these days I find it surprising there isn't a build in WordPress function for displaying one. But no matter, that's what plugins are for. A quick Google search brings up a couple. Yoast has one, so you know that one is pretty good. The other popular one is the NavXT plugin, which I actually used recently on a project and can fully vouch for it.